Tuesday, March 9, 2010
-Herniation of intervertebral disc
-Senile degeneration of disc.
Trauma to spine
Commonly affected discs- L-4,L-5,L-5-S-1
CLINICAL FEATURES OF PROLAPSED INTERVERTEBRAL DISCS
-overstraining of lumbar spine
-Sudden stooping or twisting
-Location in lower back.
-Radiates to gluteal region,back of thigh, calf, foot.
-Worse -by movement,coughing,stooping,turning,walking,bending forwards.
-Better by rest
Tingling,Numbness in calf,foot.
Monday, March 8, 2010
Thursday, March 4, 2010
Bedsores are ulcers that occur on area of the skin that are under pressure from lying in bed,sitting in a wheel chair,prolonged period of time.
WHY DOES A BEDSORE DEVELOPS?
It develops when blood supply to the skin is cut off for more than 2-3 hours.As the skin dries ,the bedsore starts as a red, painful area,which eventually turns purple.Left untreated ,the skin can break open and become infected.A bedsore can become deep extending into the muscle.Bedsores often occurs in the buttock area[on the SACRUM or ILIAC CREST],or on the heels of the feet.
-Inspecting the skin for areas of redness
-Frequent turning and repositioning
Providing soft padding in wheel chairs and beds to reduce pressure
Keeping the skin clean and dry
-Removing pressure on affected area
Protecting the wound with medicated gauze
Keeping the wound clean
Wednesday, March 3, 2010
OTHER CAUSES OF ACNE
Harmone level changes during the menstrual cycle in women.
Certain drugs such as corticosteroids,lithium and barbiturates.
Bacteria inside pimples
Acne can be aggravated by squeezing the pimples or by scrubbing the skin too hard.
SYMPTOMS OF ACNE
Acne can occur anywhere in the body but often appears where there is a high concentration of sebaceous glands
pus filled lesions that may be painful
ACNE-FACTS AND MYTHS
DOES DIET AFFECT ACNE?
-no direct link has been found between acne and diet
-It is a myth that chocolate and fried food make acne worse
-However a good balanced diet will improve your general well being and this will be reflected in the condition of your skin.
DOES SEX AFFECT ACNE?
No,Although the sex harmone Testesterone is the primary cause of acne you do not develop acne because you have too much of the harmone or are oversexed.Masturbation and whether you have sex or not has no effect on acne and certainly does not cause it.
DOES ACNE BECOME WORSE BEFORE PERIODS?
Yes,many women notice that their acne gets worse 2-7 days before their periods startThis is due to changes in their harmone levels at this stage in the menstrual cycle.
WILL PREGNANCY IMPROVE ACNE?
Yes and no
.Somewomen's acne virtually disappears but often recurs at the end of pregnancy while for others'pregnancy heralds thereactivation of acne or the worsening of existing condition.
DOES SWEATING AFFECT ACNE?
Yes, Many sufferers find their Acne flares up when they have been sweating a lot
DO HUMID ATMOSPHERES MAKE ACNE WORSE.?
Yes'Going on a holiday to a very humid climate or working in an environment such as a kitchenor a steamroom can cause acne to flare up.
CAN MEDICINES MAKE ACNE WORSE?
Yes'Many medicines do this. Most commonly CORTICOSTEROIDS and ANTI-EPILEPSYDRUGS.
CAN COSMETICS MAKE ACNE WORSE?
Some cosmetics may induce blackhead formation in the skin.
CAN CLOTHES AFFECT ACNE?
Continual pressure from headband,tight bra straps and collars may cause spots in those areas of the skin.
CORNS are small calluses that develop on the top of the toes due to pressure or rubbing against shoes or other toes.
TREATMENT FOR CALLUSES AND CORNS-
calluses are usuaiiy painless but corns can be quiet painful.Sometimes,corns are confused with warts.calluses can be avoided by removing the source of the rubbingand thinning the callus with a pumice stone.Apply pads along the corn area. wear larger more comfortable shoes.
Tuesday, March 2, 2010
Harmones are named from the greek word HARMON-''meaning to urge or excite'' because they were first discovered to play a role in hunger sex flight or fight response.
Harmones serve within the body as invaluable messengers, governors of development and regulators of metabolism.
TH, found in all chordate animals is the only major biochemical molecule known to incorporate IODINE, a substance common in the sea but rare on land
IODINE is essential to the structure of TH and iodine deficiency in the leading cause of disorders that may result in HYPOTHYROIDISM-is a condition characterised by abnormally low thyroid harmone production.There are many disorders that result in hypothyroidism.These disorders may directly or indirectly involve the thyroid gland.Because thyroid harmone affects growth,development and many cellular processes,inadequate thyroid harmone has widespread consequences for the body CAUSES OF HYPOTHYROIDISM
-chronic autoimmune thyroiditis(Hashimato's Thyroiditis), a form of thyroid inflammation caused by damage to the thyroid tissue.Damage occurs because immune cells which usually fight off infection and colds attack the body's own thyroid tissue instead.
-AGE-As age progresses hypothyroidism is common particularly in women
SURGERY-removal of thyroid gland
RADIOACTIVE IODINE THERAPY
SECONDARY HYPOTHYROIDISM -egdiseases of pituitary glandor hypothalamus may cause thyroid harmone deficiency.
TH exists in two major forms -
LEVOTHYROXINE(T4)-with 4 iodine atoms per molecule is an inactive form that can be converted to
T3(TRIIODOTHYRONINE) with 3 iodine atoms per molecule is eight times more effective than T4. It is converted from T4 in the thyroid, brain, liver, blood stream and various tissues of the body.
EFFECTS OF THYROID IMBALANCE-HYPOTHYROIDISM-
- SHORT TERM MEMORY PROBLEMS
- ATTENTION DEFICITS
- INCREASED STRESS
- DECREASED LIBIDO
- HAIR LOSS
- DRY,ROUGH,PALE AND ITCHY SKIN
- COLD INTOLERANCE
- ABNORMAL MENSTRUAL CYCLES
- HOARSE VOICE AND SLOW SPEECH
- PUFFY SWOLLEN FACE AND DULL FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
- NON PITTING OEDEMA
- PITTING OEDEMA OF THE FEET
- MOOD SWINGS
- MEMORY LOSS
- PARANOID DEPRESSION
- HALLUCINATIONS in extreme stages
- low TH LEVEL produces -
- SLOW DIGESTION OF FOOD
- MUSCLES AND JOINTS ACHE
- LOWERED STAMINA
- SLOW HEART BEAT
- B.P 70/50
Monday, March 1, 2010
- POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN DISEASE (PCOD) or POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME (PCOS) is a disease characterized by multiple (poly) cysts (small sacks filled with fluid) in the ovaries
- HIRSUTISM (excessive hair growth on the face, chest, back)
- CENTRAL OBESITY (weight gain and difficulty in losing weight)
- ACNE, OILY SKIN, DANDRUFF
- MALE PATTERN BALDNESS
- AMENORRHOEA or OLIGOMENORRHOEA
- RAISED SERUM CONCENTRATION OF TESTOSTERONE AND OR LH
- IN PCOS, the associated metabolic abnormalities (abnormal serum lipid concentrations and insulin resistance) also put women at an increased risk of developing DIABETES MELLITUS
- ANOVULATORY INFERTILITY
- MOOD SWINGS AND DEPRESSION
- THINNING OF HAIRS
- HIGH CHOLESTEROL
- HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
- ENDOCRINE TESTS
- IMAGING THE OVARIES
- COMBINATION OF WEIGHT LOSS AND EXERCISE MAY STIMULATE OVULATION
HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT-There arenot any specific homeopathic remedies that are designed for the treatment of PCOS. However,there are homeopathic treatments that may help a woman with PCOS .The most common form of homeopathic treatments that address the general well being of the person.
One of the Homeopathic treatments for PCOS is NAT -MUR. NAT-MUR isprescribed for a variety of symptoms such as eczema,vertigo,oralthrushand premenstrualtension
Another treatment is LYCOPODIUM. LYCO is used for vomiting ,indigestion,bloating,constipation,anxiety and insomnia.
SEPIA is also sometimes used. SEPIA is generally used for a variety of female difficulties that centre around the uterus ,vagina,or ovaries.
LACHESIS ,is also used in PCOS.lachesis is used for blood poisoning,circulation difficulties with menstruation,menopause,tonsillitis and uterine problems.
OOPHORINUM is found to be useful in certain patients.